@In 1988, the IWC moratorium became effective in Japanese coastal waters. This resulted in a cessation of whaling for commercial purposes of all large whales, including the minke whale. As a result, small-type coastal whalers, for whom the minke was the primary species, could now only harvest Baird's beaked whales and pilot whales. Because it costs so much to operate all nine vessels, the whalers decided to operate the vessels in pairs: four@of the vessels were taken out of operations to reduce costs. By doing this, the permit holders are able to continue at least limited operations, using only five vessels.